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Soil Bricks manufacturing is a very old activity and spread all over the country. Bricks are the main building materials for constructional activities but the quality of BRICS differs from place to place. There are large variations in the quality of soils available in different parts of the country and also bricks manufacturing process but it is a simple process.

Bricks manufacturing is a seasonal activity and mostly established in rural areas of the country. These units may be set up either in the cottage sector or small sector. The bricks industry in India uses soil as the main raw materials and slack coal as fuel. The quantity of coal required for the firing of bricks is variable and depends upon the climate, soil- moisture, and the subsoil water level. In Bihar, clamp kilns and Bulls Trench kilns are in practice for making Brics. About 20 MT of coal is required to fire one lacs Brics in Bull Trench Kilns whereas for the same Kilns, in dry climates, where the subsoil water is deep, about 30 MT coal has been found sufficient. Sandy soil also needs more coal. Clamp kilns are for small consumers and also at places where bricks making clays are present in small packets.


In addition to the above siting conditions and manufacturing process, the fuel consumption also depends largely upon the condition of the kiln, the manner of the setting of bricks, and the control of the firing process. Heat loss differs from one type of kiln to another type of kiln. Large kilns consume less fuel than small kilns for a given no. of bricks. It is also a well-known fact that bricks made out of carbonaceous clays require a lesser quantity of external fuel for their firing.

All the operations right from the digging of the earth to unloading of fired bricks from the kiln are accompanied by the evolution of dust which makes the whole workplace dusty. Air Pollution in a brick kiln is produced both through stack emissions as well as fugitive emissions and having adverse effects on the surrounding environments. However, these effects can be minimized by proper siting of the brick kiln, adopting cleaner technology of bricks manufacturing, and also the operation of the brick kilns as per the guidelines. In such cases, fuel consumption can also be reduced up to 20% and as a result, the operational cost will be reduced to a greater extent.

The type of kilns used in India for bricks manufacturing are as follows:-

  1. Bull Trench Kiln with a pair of steel chimney;
  2. Bull Trench Kiln with single steel chimney;
  3. Fixed chimney kiln;
  4. High draught Kiln;
  5. Hoffman Kiln;
  1. Down draught Kiln; and
  2. Clamps Kiln.

Clamps and Down draught kilns are an intermittent type of kilns. Such types of kilns are those in which green bricks are set, fired, cooled the taken out from the kiln, and either stocked or delivered to the customer. The process is then repeated with other charges of green bricks. Down draught kilns are the most widely used type of intermittent kilns. These are used not only for firing bricks but also for roofing tiles, glazed tiles, and refractory goods.


Bull Trench Kiln, Fixed chimney kiln, High draught kiln, Hoffman Kiln are of continuous type kiln. Continuous kilns are those, in which firing is done continuously, green bricks are being put into one part of the kiln and fired bricks are withdrawn from the other end. Continuous kiln utilizes heat from the cooling bricks to preheat green bricks and combustion air consequently and so continuous kilns are economical from a fuel consumption point of view. Hoffman is generally used for firing roof tiles in the southern part of the country. High draught kiln is basically an archless, top-fed, coal-fired continuous kiln in which the flame flows in a zig-zag path. The main fuel is connected to an induced draft fan  (12 kW motor ) which in turn is connected to a short masonry chimney to exhaust the flue gases at a convenient height. At present Bulls trench Kiln still remains the only form of continuous kiln used in the country for making common building bricks. In such type of kiln, the height of the movable steel chimney varies from 12m to 15m which discharges the flue gases at the lower level. The height of the steel chimney is limited and can not be increased because of their movement during the operation of the kiln.

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So, the fixed chimney is best for the both maximum production of bricks and less environmental pollution creation to a greater extent. A fixed chimney kiln is a continuous type of kiln in which operative practices are similar to Bull’s trench Kiln but the chimney is fixed and taller. Taller chimney provides the necessary draught to continue the burning of the flue and also to disperse the emission at a height enough to prevent the excessive concentration of pollutants on the ground level. The moving steel chimney is replaced by a fixed tall chimney, generally located at the center of the kiln. The chimney, in turn, is connected to the trench through a system of the flue which opens in the inner wall. A cavity is left over the roof of the flue passes, which is wide enough to allow a man to reach the flue opening leading to the trench so as to open or close it, as and when required. The height of the Masonry chimney is kept between 22m to 30m depending upon the capacity of the kiln.


By adopting the Fixed Chimney system for brick manufacturing the fuel consumption can be minimized up to 20% and accordingly air pollutants in stack emission in form of SPM, SO2, NOx, H2S, CO, etc. will also be reduced considerably.                                 

It is well known that BRICS is the main raw materials for building constructions. The demand for building materials is on increasing day by day due to the growth of our populations, problems of residential buildings as the residence are the main human need because a poor family hopes to be a well-decorated residential building as it is required for healthy & civilized life of man. For a social life, a residential building is required must. Building protects us from enemy, storm, rain, bitter sun rays, and another enemy of the man.

This report seeks to examine the Tecno Economic Feasibility Report on Bricks manufacturing.



This red brick manufacturing unit will be set up at a place that should be justified in view of the following basic considerations:-

  1. Availability of raw materials & consumables.
  2. Availability of Power, Fuel, Water.
  3. Banking facility.
  4. Marketing prospectus.
  5. Good communications.
  6. Labor facility.


The main raw materials & consumables are soil and sand.


– Steam Coal


– Red bricks


– 36×2 lakhs red bricks.

The capacity utilization will be as below:-

– 70%, 75%, 80% for 1st.yr., 2nd.yr. and 3rd.yr respectively and so on.


200 days per annum.


The unit will be completed all the formalities about pollution control. The promoter will take NOC and will run for a pollution license from  State Pollution Control Board.



Red bricks are the main building materials having high and regular demand. Due to the growth of our populations, industrial activities, commercial activities, tread activities the construction works have gone up very high this causes the growth in demand for building materials. Red bricks are used for the construction of residential, commercial, multi-storied, and industrial buildings, dams, bridges, roads banks, drainage, etc. So there has a huge demand for the red bricks. Having a nos. of red brick industries in the local there is a vast gap between demand and supply. As we know that how the poor family in rural areas are living in narrow spaces and in a very low grade of buildings where their life is not safe. Keeping in view of the above fact the Govt. is working for the upliftment of the quality of there residential buildings. The planning commission has estimated a massive investment of Rs. 98,900 crores to achieve a physical target of 22 million housing units. Thus this grows huge demand for building materials. So this creates a vast scope for setting up more new units.


The manufacturing process is very simple. First of all, the soil is cut and are prepared for the bricks. Soil thus prepared is put in the dies, pressed, and then the raw bricks are turned down in the sunlight for proper drying. After well drying the bricks are collected and carried to Bhatta. The bricks are then arranged in a proper way for firing. After half-filling  Bhatta is fired for pacca red bricks. After continuous firing, the raw bricks are converted into pucca red bricks. It is put out from the Bhatta and shorted out for 1st. class and 2nd. class. Now it is ready for sale.

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