What is a cupola furnace?
Cupola furnace casting unit means to make in liquid form of pig iron, transferring the Melton mass to molds, taking out the solidified objects then finishing the objects. This complete process is done in a casting unit known as a foundry; either it may be small, micro, or medium units. This is the principle of casting. For melting the iron a cupola furnace is used. It may be of different types, designs, and capacities as required by the unit.
Process of casting
The products which are produced in this casting unit, cannot be produced anywhere. The furnace is loaded with the required materials such as pig iron, iron scraps, and others in the required ratio. Furnaces are of four types depending on the process of casting and the products. Furnaces are coal-fired, Gas-fired, electric arc, and oil-fired. The basis of the casting principle is the same it does not depend on the type of furnace. These furnaces are based on the capacity of the plants and the character, quantity, quality, and size of the final products.
What is produced from the cupola furnace?
By such casting units we can produce all types of machinery parts, engine parts, railway wheels, and base, rails, and many other types of products such as Hand pump Munda, Handle, Chaff Cutter, Flecha, and agricultural equipment, so, there is a vast scope of cupola furnace casting units.
TYPE OF CASTING
There are a number of casting processes:-
- Sand casting
Sand casting is done in the molds prepared in the sand. By this casting process, mostly nonferrous alloy casting is done. Side by side steel and iron are also cast.
- Investment casting:-
Investment casting is the process of casting, where patterns are made mostly by fusible materials, and patterns are covered by layers and layers. This process is used for small parts with complex shapes and sizes, and high precision requirements. The turbine engine blade is prepared by this process.
- Die casting
In the Die Casting process, the molten liquid is pressed on high pressure with high speed in the precision casting molds. This process of casting is mostly used by automobile and instrumental industries. It is also used by agriculture machinery manufacturing, machine tools industries, and many other parts making industries.
- Low-pressure casting:-
By this process of casting the molten mass is placed in molds at low pressure. This process is used for the manufacture of small parts, hand pump Munda, Flecha, gate grill accessories, and many other items like this.
- Centrifugal casting:-
In this process of castings, the molten mass is poured in a rotating pattern and also solidifies by rotating. This process is based on centrifugal force. This process is used to manufacture steel pipes, cast iron pipes, metallurgical industries, internal combustions engine liners, and many others from ferrous, nonferrous, carbon, and steel materials.
- Gravity Die Casting:-
By this process of casting, the molten mass is poured into metal mounds and solidified by the action of gravity. This process is used for casting non-ferrous alloy on large scale.
- Vacuum Die casting:-
This is an advanced method of casting for preparing engine parts and quality surface finish.
- Squeezing Die Casting:-
This method is a high-quality semisolid flowing formation to directly obtain the objects. This process is used for the formation of different kinds of alloy casting.
- Low Foam Casting:-
This process of casting is used to form the various sizes of precision casting in complex sizes.
- Continual casting:-
This process of casting is a continuous process and the molten mass is placed continuously in a crystallizer to one end and the object comes out to the other end. It is a continuing process and is used for cross-section objects such as pipes, ingots, slabs, rods, etc.
POLLUTION CONTROL FOR CUPOLA FURNACE
The foundry industry has a mass share of environmental degradation. This unit required NOC from the state pollution control board. The necessary action to be taken and pollution controlling equipment should be installed. Depending upon the objects producing the foundry industry itself produce a great problem of waste disposal and irreclaimable sands, ashes, and slag. These are health problems creating materials. Casting units produce heat, noxious gases, dust, and noise. So extra care concerning pollution should be taken.
LOCATION OF THE UNIT FOR THE CUPOLA
The unit will be set up at such a place that the site must justify to be suitable in view of the following basic considerations:-
- Availability of raw materials & consumables.
- Availability of Power, Fuel, Water.
- Banking facility.
- Marketing prospectus.
- Good communications.
- Labor facility.
RAW MATERIALS AND CONSUMABLES FOR THE CUPOLA FURNACE
Raw materials and consumables are as hereunder:-
- Iron Scraps.
- Foundry-grade pig iron.
- Hard coke.
- Lead, Bentonite, fire clay.
ITEMS TO BE PRODUCED BY THE CUPOLA FURNACE
INSTALLED CAPACITY OF THE CUPOLA FURNACE
– 20 MT per day month.
– i.e. 240 MT per annum.
ACHIEVABLE CAPACITY FOR THE CUPOLA FURNACE
It has been presumed that the unit will achieve its 70% capacity in the 1st.yr. 75% in 2nd.yr. & 80% in 3rd.yr.
WORKING HOURS IN THE CUPOLA FURNACE
The unit will work one shift per day
-i.e. 8 hours per day.
-i.e. 25 days per month.
-i.e. 300 days per annum.
PRODUCTION PROCESS OF THE CUPOLA FURNACE
The manufacturing process consists of the following steps:-
- Pattern making.
- Raw materials melting in the cupola furnace.
- Pouring the molten mass into the pattern.
- Left for solidifying.
- Taken out after solidified.
- Finishing the objects for supply.
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