FLY ASH BRICKS MANUFACTURING
BANKABLE PROJECT REPORT ON FLY ASH BRICKS MANUFACTURING.
Fly -Ash Bricks are manufactured from fly ash, lime, gypsum, and sand in the required proportion are mixed in pan mixer. Fly ash bricks are made from fly ash suspension coming from thermal power and foundry industries. Here coal is the main fuel for these big industries. Here coal is burned for heat generation, during the burning of coal the mineral particles like clay, quartz, shale, and feldspar are fused in suspension. It is a burned fine particle floated out from the combustion chamber with the exhaust gases. After coming out, it comes together and solidified by cooling into spherical glass particles. These spherical glassy particles are called Fly Ash.
In the modern age of technology fly, ash is collected by electrostatics participators. This fly ash is the main by-product of coal combustion. This fly ash may create the disposal problem. Some good quality of fly ash is used for other purposes.
Thermal power stations and all the big foundry industries required fuel in the form of coal. Here coal is burned for heat generation, during the burning of coal the mineral particles like clay, quartz, shale, and feldspar are fused in suspension. It is a burned fine particle floated out from the combustion chamber with the exhaust gases. After coming out it comes together and solidified by cooling into spherical classy particles. These spherical glassy particles are called Fly Ash. In the modern age of technology fly, ash is collected by electrostatics participators. This fly ash is the main by-product of coal combustion. This fly ash may create the disposal problem. Some of the good quality of fly ash is used for other purposes.
Properties of fly ash are as under:
- Physical Properties.
Specific Gravity – 2.54 to 2.65 gm/cc
Bulk Density – 1.12 gm/cc
Fineness – 350 to 450 M2/Kg
- Chemical Properties.
Silica – 35-59 %
Alumina – 23-33%
Calcium Oxide – 10-16%
Loss on ignition – 1-2%
Sulphur – 0.5- 1.5%
Iron – 0.5- 2.0 %
On the national level to improve the environment quality these fly ash are used for the manufacturing of pulverized fuel ash-lime Bricks. This is a supplement of common burnt clay Bricks. Bricks named as fly ash Bricks are manufactured by a blending of pulverized ash in large quantity, lime, and accelerators as different materials, molding into bricks, curing at different temperatures and pressures.
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Sometimes crushed bottom fuel ash and sand are also added in the raw material compositions of fly ash bricks to make it coarser to control water absorption to the final products.
Production of fly ash bricks has been started all over the country. It is estimated that in the coming time fly ash bricks will become very popular as it is chemically inert materials.
BISIS & PRESUMPTION.
The cost in respect of plant & machinery, raw materials, and finished products has been taken at the time of preparation of this project report and may vary depending upon various factors.
This report is detailed only in Techno-Economic –Feasibility aspects.
Tax, Freight, Installation, and electrification cost is taken at 15% of the cost of machinery and equipment.
Non-refundable deposits, project report cost, trial production, security deposits with Electricity Board are taken under pre-operative expenses.
Depreciation has been considered:
(a) On Building @ 5%
(b) On plant and machinery @ 10%
(c) On office furniture and fixtures @ 10%
(d) On other fixed assets @ 10%.
Interest in capital investment has been taken at 12.50% per annum.
- Promoter contribution has been taken at a minimum of 05% or 10% of total investment.
- All calculations have been based on a single shift running.
- The unit will install a D/G set to meet the problem of insufficient power supply.
- Capacity utilization has been taken as 1st. Yr.-70%, 2nd. Yr.-75%, and 3rd. Yr.-80%.
- This project may be set up where the raw materials are easily available.
It has been presumed that the unit will run at least 300 days in a year.
LOCATION OF THE UNIT.
The location of the unit is an important factor given the basic consideration. It should justify to suitable the following benefits:-
- Availability of raw materials & consumables.
- Availability of Power, Fuel, Water.
- Banking facility.
- Marketing prospectus.
- Good communications.
- Labor facility.
RAW MATERIALS AND CONSUMABLES.
The main raw materials and consumables are as below:-
- Fly Ash.
ITEMS TO BE PRODUCED.
- Fly Ash Bricks.
- Fly Ash Bricks-24 lakhs per annum.
The unit will work one shift per day.
-i.e. 8 hours per day.
-i.e. 25 days per month.
-i.e. 300 days per annum.
INSPECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL.
The Bureau of Indian Standards has published the following specifications:-
- BIS- IS:12894: 2002.
- Compressive strength achievable: 60-250 Kg/Cm.
- Water absorption: 5 – 12%.
- Density: 1.5 gm/cc.
The technology adopted for making fly ash bricks is eco-friendly. It does not require steaming or auto-calving as the bricks are cured by water only. Facial masks should be provided to the employee. Dust control equipment may be installed to avoid dust pollution. The raw materials should be kept covered by a polythene sheet.
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Common bricks have greater markets in India due to industrialization, expanding housing sector projects, and going up the living standard of the common men. But a survey conducted by Govt. agency indicates that about 180 billion tones of clay burnt red bricks are consumed per annum. This means that the upper layer of about 5000 acres lands is dug out every year. Red bricks are finally fed to burning coals; this is a separate problem creation. Erosion of soil, burning of wood and coal causes deforestation; it is the creation of serious problems by the bricks industries. These problems can be reduced by using fly ash bricks. Units for fly ash bricks are coming rapidly and hopped that it will reach up to 90 million units by the year 2020. People are taking more interest in fly ash bricks. It will be spread all over the country very soon. There is ample scope of fly ash bricks. In the present time about one crore of fly ash brick is required per month for constructional activities. Fly ash bricks are manufactured whole the year whereas in rainy season red bricks cannot be produced. On the whole, it is estimated that the coming time its demand will be on the upper level.
The manufacturing process of fly ash is not too hard. It has neither complex technology nor skilled work. For manufacturing fly ash, lime, gypsum, and sand in the required proportion are mixed in pan mixer. It may be feed by manual or automatic. Water is added to the required quantity. The ratio of materials may vary depending upon the quality of raw materials. The mixer is fed automatically to the bricks manufacturing machine through the conveyor belt. Here bricks are pressed automatically and placed on wooden planks made for the purpose. Here it is kept for two days and then transferred for water curing for 10 to 15 days. Bricks are sorted and tested before supply.
The ratio for material mixing:-
- Fly ash 70%.
- Line 10%.
- Gypsum 5%.
- Sand 15%.
Land and Building
The unit will be set up in own land/leasehold land.
The building will be constructed as hereunder:-
Covered shed Area = 60’0’’ x 40’0’’ = 2400 Ft.
Cost = Rs. 3,00,000.00
Overhead water tank = Rs. 50,000.00
TOTAL = Rs. 3,50,000.00
Cost of Plant and Machinery.
Particulars Amount in lakhs.
- Automatic Fly ash Brick making
machine hydraulic operated with all
accessories and fitting with 18HP Motor 10.92
- 500 kgs capacity of Pan Mixture with 7.5
HP Motor 2 no. 2.36
- Belt Conveyor with necessary fittings and
2 HP Motor 1 no. 1.20
- Pallet truck 2 nos & Wheelbarrows 3 nos 0.85
- Erecting and Electrification Charges 0.52
- Total 15.85
N.B. – The cost of plant and machine has been at the time of project preparation.
Cost of Other Fixed Assets.
Particulars Amount in lakhs
- Cost of tools & Equipments 0.10
- Cost of furniture & Fixture 0.10
CH 3:4 Contingencies
It has been taken @ 0 % on all the fixed assets.
CH 3:5 Preliminary & Pre- Operative expenses
Particulars Amount in lakh
1. Consultancy fee 0.02
- Traveling & Conveyance 0.02
- Other start-up expenses 0.02
- Loan during setting up period 0.10
- Loan raising expenses 0.02
- Other misc. exp. 0.02