India’s Major Industries
India’s Major Industries-Major Industries of India
India’s Major Industries, India is an agricultural country but industrialization is also increasing rapidly here. Due to new technologies, the industries of India have grown very fast. Most of the industries here are based on agriculture. So let us see which industries are there in India, which are India’s Major Industries? Its details are here.
What are industries? India’s Major Industries
Industry i.e. the human activity of manufacturing / producing a large number of goods in a particular area or providing service to a large extent is called industry. Due to industries, quality products are available at cheap prices, due to which the standard of living of the people improves and life becomes more convenient.
As a result of the Industrial Revolution, new industries started in Europe and North America. After this modern industrialization started spreading. During this period, the advent of new technologies and new means of energy gave a tremendous boost to the industries. India is not an industrial nation.
It is a mixed economy nation. Agriculture was the mainstay of India’s economy before independence. The establishment of modern industries or large industries started in India in the middle of the 19th century. When the cotton textile industries were established by European businessmen or industries in Calcutta and Mumbai.
Classification of Major Industries
Based on product characteristics, the major industries of India can be divided into six parts-
- Metallurgical industry – Iron, steel, aluminum, copper, lead-zinc, etc.
- Textile Industry – Cotton textile, woolen silk fabric, artificial thread fabric, jute industry, etc.
- Engineering Industry – Heavy Machinery, Motor Vehicle, Ship, Locomotive, Aircraft, etc.
- Chemical Industry – Chemical Fertilizers, Soda Ash, Sulfur Acid, Caustic Soda, Cement, Glass, Plastic, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum Industry, etc.
- Food Industry – China Industry, Vegetable Industry, Pulses Industry, Oil Industry, Biscuit Industry, etc.
- Other Industries – Paper Industry, Matching Industry, Cosmetic Industry, Furniture Industry, etc.
Let us now know in detail about all these major industries of India. Which industry started when and how? Where are the major industries of India established? Which industry affects the economy of India? Major Industries of India Which industry has a great influence? Complete information related to all these things…
Iron and steel industry India’s Major Industries
For the first time in 1907, the iron and steel industry in India started with the establishment of Tata Iron and Steel Company by Jamshedji Tata in Jamshedpur (Jharkhand). Since then till today, India has been ranked eighth in the production of steel in the world. The largest export of steel from India is to China.
List of major iron and steel producing companies.
The first iron steel factory in India was established in 1874 AD at a place called Kulti (West Bengal) as Barakar Iron Company. It was established in 1956 AD. It was done in West Bengal with the help of Britain at a place called Durgapur.
- Indian Iron Steel Company – It was established in 1908 AD at Hirapur in the Damodar river valley of Bengal.
- Mysore Iron and Steel Works – was established in 1923 AD at a place called Bhadravati in Mysore State (present-day Karnataka). Its present name is Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. (VISCL).
- Steel Corporation of Bengal – It was established in 1937 AD in Burnpur (West Bengal). Later in 1953, it was merged with the Indian Iron Steel Company. This is the first iron steel factory established after independence.
- Bhilai Steel Plant – It was established in 1955 AD in Bhilai (Durg district) of the Madhya Pradesh with the help of the former Soviet Union.
- Hindustan Steel Limited, Rourkela – It was established in 1953 AD at a place called Rourkela in Orissa with the help of Germany.
- Hindustan Steel Limited, Durgapur – It was established in 1956 AD at a place called Durgapur in West Bengal with the help of Britain.
- Bokaro Steel Plant – It was established in 1968 AD at a place called Bokaro in the then Bihar state with the help of the former Soviet Union.
- Salem Steel Plant – Salem (Tamil Nadu).
- Visakhapatnam Steel Plant – Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
- Vijayanagara Steel Plant – Haspet Bellary District (Karnataka).
- Steel Authority of India (SAIL) – It is an undertaking established by the Government of India. Durgapur, Bhilai, Rourkela, Bokaro, Burnpur, Salem, and Visvesvaraya, the management of all these Iron Steel Company is under this management since 1989.
Aluminum Industry-India’s Major Industries
The first aluminum factory in India was established in 1937 AD near Asansol in West Bengal by J. Of. was established in the city. After that in 1938, four factories were established at Muri in the erstwhile Bihar state, Aluway in Kerala, Belur in West Bengal, and Hirakud in Orissa. Madras Aluminum Company was established at Matur in Tamil Nadu.
Cotton Textile Industry-India’s Major Industries
The traditional handloom and modern cotton textile industry is the largest industry sector in India. India is the third-largest producer of cotton textiles after the US and China. India ranks second in the world cotton textile trade. In India, the maximum number of 35 crore people are employed in the cotton textile industry.
The first cotton mill was established near Kolkata (Calcutta) in 1818, but the actual beginning of the cotton textile industry in India was after the cotton mill was set up by the Indian capital in Mumbai.
The largest number of textile mills in India is in the state of Tamil Nadu, followed by the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh.
The cotton textile industry is localized in 88 cities in the country, but it is mainly concentrated in the arid western part of the peninsula and the western parts of the Great Plains, where cotton is cultivated. Maharashtra, especially Mumbai, and Gujarat in which especially Ahmedabad, are the major cotton textile industries.
Major Cotton-producing States
Apart from Mumbai in Maharashtra, the major centers of this industry are located in Solapur, Nagpur, Pune, Amravati, and Aurangabad. Gujarat is the second-largest producer of cotton textiles in the country. Here, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bharanch, Vadodara, Bhavnagar, and Rajkot are notable centers of this industry.
Kolkata, Howrah, Serampore, and Murshidabad in West Bengal, Coimbatore, Chennai, Madurai, and Salem in Tamil Nadu, and Kanpur, Modinagar, Varanasi, and Hathras in Uttar Pradesh are the major centers of the cotton textile industry.
Ready-made fabrics have a predominance in the export of cotton textiles in the country. The United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France, Nepal, and Singapore are the largest buyers of Indian textiles. T
o encourage the export of cotton textiles in the country, Upper Parks have been set up at Tronicanagar and Kanpur, Kanchipuram and Tiruppur, Thiruvananthapuram, Visakhapatnam, Bangalore, Surat, Ludhiana, Indore, and Jaipur.
Jute Industry-India’s Major Industries
The jute industry in India started in Kolkata in 1859 and has become a major source of foreign exchange for the country. India is the largest producer of jute and jute products and 35% of the world’s jute is produced in India. At present, there are more than 78 jute factories in the country.
Of these, 61 are in the state of West Bengal alone. West Bengal has 10 factories for 100% export of jute. The jute industry is concentrated on both banks of the Hooghly River in Kolkata. Jute Corporation of India was established in 1971 to import, export, and look after the internal and internal market.
Major Places Related to Jute Industry in India
- West Bengal – Titagarh, Rishra, Bali, Agar Pada, Bansberia, Kan Kinara, Liberia, Saurampur Howrah, Shyam Nagar, Shivpur, Sealdah, Birlapur, Holinagar, Barrackpore.
- Andhra Pradesh – Visakhapatnam, Guntur,
- Uttar Pradesh Kanpur, Sahjanwan.
- Bihar- Purnia, Katihar, Saharsa, Darbhanga.
Sugar Industry-India’s Major Industries
The sugar industry is an important agro-based industry affecting the rural livelihood of about 50 million sugarcane farmers and 5 lakh workers directly employed in sugar mills. Employment opportunities have also been generated in various ancillary activities related to transport, trading services of machinery, and the supply of agricultural inputs.
This industry is mainly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, and Rajasthan in India.
The following cities in these states are related to the sugar industry
- Uttar Pradesh – Deoria, Bhatni, Padrauna, Gorakhpur, Gauri Bazar, Siswan Bazar, Basti, Gonda, Balrampur, Barabanki, Sitapur, Hardoi, Vijnor, Meerut, Saharanpur, Moradabad, Bulandshahr, Kanpur, Faizabad, and Muzaffarnagar, etc.
- Bihar – Motihari, Sugoli, Majholia, Chanpatia, Nakartiaganj, Marhaura, Sasamusa, Gopalganj, Motipur, Gauraul, Dalmiyanagar, Saran, Samastipur, Darbhanga, Champaran, Hasanpur, Muzaffarpur etc.
- Maharashtra Mansad, Nashik, Ahmednagar, Poona, Solapur, and Kolhapur.
- West Bengal – Teldanga, Palasi, Hawara, and Murshidabad.
- Punjab – Humira, Phagwara, Amritsar.
- Haryana – Jagdhari and Rohtak.
- Tamil Nadu – Arcot, Madurai, Kotampabadur, Tiruchirappalli.
- Andhra Pradesh – Sitapuram, Pithapuram, Bezwada, Haspet, Sabal Kot, and Hyderabad.
- Rajasthan – Gangankar, Bhupal Sagar.
Cement Industry-India’s Major Industries
The first modern form of cement in the world was manufactured in 1824 AD at a place called Portland in Britain. The first factory to make cement in India in a modern way was set up in Madras in 1904, which was unsuccessful. After the Madras factory, in 1912-13 AD, the Indian Cement Company Ltd.
A factory was set up by him at a place called Porbandar in Gujarat, in which production started in 1914 AD. Associated Cement Company Ltd. (A.C.C.) was established in 1934.
The state of Andhra Pradesh has the largest number of cement factories in India. It is followed by the states of Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The major cement-producing states are Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Bihar.
Rajasthan ranks first in the country in cement production. The Indian cement industry ranks second in the world in the production of cement.
Major Cement Producing States and Locations of India
- Rajasthan – Jaipur, Lakheri.
- Madhya Pradesh – Satna, Katni, Jabalpur, Banmor, Gwalior,
- Karnataka – Bhojpur, Bhadravati, Bagalkot, Bangalore
- Tamil Nadu – Dalmiyapuram, Madhukarai, Tulkapatti.
- Kerala – Kottanam
- Chhattisgarh – Durg, Jamul, Tilda, Mandhar, Akaltara
- Uttar Pradesh – Mirzapur, Churk.
- Jharkhand – Dalmiyanagar, Japla, Khelari, Kalyanpur, Sindri, and Sheinkapani.
- Bihar – Dalmiyanagar, Kalyanpur and Banjari. Orissa Rajgangpur.
- Andhra Pradesh – Krishna, Vijayawada, Mancherial, Manchuria,
- Gujarat – Porbandar, Dwarka, Sika (Jamnagar), Bhavnagar, Sevaliyam and Ranayay.
- Punjab – Surajpur Haryana – Charkhi Dadri.
India is the fourth largest silk-producing country in the world. India is the second-largest producer of Tasar silk after China. India has a monopoly in the world in the production of coral silk which is produced in Assam. India ranks second in the production of raw silk in the world. Karnataka is the largest silk-producing state, producing about 60% of the country’s silk.
This is followed by Andhra Pradesh at 17%, West Bengal at 8%, Tamil Nadu at 7%, and the remaining 8% in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. Almost the entire mulberry silk is produced in Karnataka, P. It occurs in Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, and Andhra Pradesh.
The major centers of the silk industry in the country are Bangalore, Mysuru, Kolar, Belagavi, Dharmavaram, Warangal, Murshidabad, Vishnupur, Kanjeevaram, Srinagar, Mirzapur, Varanasi, and Bhagalpur.
Woolen Textile Industry
The modern woolen textile industry started in India with the establishment of the wool mill at Kanpur in 1870 and Dhariwal in 1883. There are 718 registered units of this industry in the country.
Around 12 lakh people are engaged in this industry. Punjab, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh are the major producing states of woolen goods. After these, the place of Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jammu, and Kashmir comes.
About 40% of the wool mills are in Punjab and most of the wool mills in Punjab are in Gurdaspur-Ludhiana Amritsar. 27 percent of the country’s wool mills are in Haryana, 10 percent in Rajasthan, and the remaining 23 percent in other states.
Good quality wool is imported into the country from Australia. New Zealand’s fine wool is mainly being imported for the carpet sector to blend with domestic wool.
Synthetic Fiber Industry
Rayon, nylon, terene, and dacron are man-made fibers, which are made by chemical methods. India both produces and exports it. India’s first rayon factory was established in 1950 AD at Travancore Rayon Ltd. in Raipur, Kerala. established in the name of Only a few big industrial houses are associated with the rayon industry in India.
Almost all major cotton textile manufacturers make rayon, nylon, and polyester fibers. These industries are limited only to Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Delhi.
Heavy Engineering Industry
The engineering industry produces heavy machines for the iron and steel industry and machinery and equipment for all industries like the textile industry, sugar industry, cement industry, tea industry, chemical industry, etc.
Major Groups of Engineering Industry Electrical Equipment – Electrical Equipment like Turbines, Transformers, Boilers, etc. Bharat Heavy Engineering Ltd. (BHEL) factories at Haridwar, Bhopal, Tiruchirappalli, Ramachandrapuram, Jammu, and Bangalore.
Rail Equipment-India’s Major Industries
The locomotives are manufactured in Chittaranjan, Jamshedpur, and Varanasi. Rail coaches are manufactured at Perambur and Bangalore. Rail locomotives are being manufactured by Bhopal-based public sector company Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).
BHEL has also acquired the capability to manufacture electric-powered engines for the Indian Railways. There are factories for making parts for Kapurthala railway coaches, wagons at Yelanhaka (Bangalore), and diesel engine parts at Patiala.
Heavy machinery for the iron and steel industry is manufactured at the factories of Ranchi (Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd.), Naini, and Tungabhadra. Coal mining machines are made in Durgapur (West Bengal).
Machines and Tools – Machines and tools of various sizes and types are manufactured at Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) factories in Bangalore, Panjor (Haryana), Hyderabad, Srinagar, Poona, and Kalamassery (Kerala). The automotive-automotive industry is mainly concentrated in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, New Delhi, and Poona.
Five Shipbuilding Centers of India Hindustan Shipyard Limited Visakhapatnam, Garden Reach Workshop Kolkata, Goa Shipyard Limited. Goa, Mazgaon Dock Mumbai, and Kochi Shipyard Ltd. Kochi are. Among them, Visakhapatnam has the largest shipbuilding facility, which can build three ships per year.
The Kochi Shipbuilding House, built with Japanese collaboration, houses the largest shipbuilding dock in India. Extraction ships, boats, etc. go to Barnard in Kolkata.
Warships are built-in Mazagon. Hooghly Dock & Port Engineers Ltd., Kolkata. took the form of a Central Public Sector Establishment in 1984. The company has two units at Salkia and Nazirganj in the Howrah district of West Bengal. In addition to passenger ships, there are facilities for the construction of dredger ships and ships for supply and relief.
Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd. in Bangalore in 1940 AD. (HAL) established the first airplane factory. The major branches of HAL are the Nashik branch, where aircraft are manufactured, and the Koraput branch, where MIG engines are manufactured.
The Hyderabad branch, where MIG electronic components are manufactured, the Kanpur branch, which manufactures HS-748 aircraft, and the Lucknow branch, which manufactures aircraft components. And tools are made.
Bangalore-based Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BAL) for Security, Services, All India Radio and Meteorological Department. Manufactures electronic equipment. The Indian Telephone Industry (ITI), based in Bangalore, manufactures telephone equipment.
Hyderabad-based Electronics Corporation of India (ECI) manufactures equipment for nuclear plants, medicine, agriculture, and industries. The new ITI built at Naini manufactures equipment for microwave communication.
Modern large tannery factories are primarily concentrated in northern India. Uttar Pradesh is also at the fore in northern India, where Kanpur is the largest tanning center. A large quantity of refined leather is also produced in Kolkata, Chennai. Agra is the largest center in the manufacture of leather goods.
The first paper mill was established in 1870 in Kolkata. The paper industry is widespread in Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh. Nepa Paper Mill at Nepanagar, Mysore Paper Mill, and Kerala Newsprint manufacture paper for newspapers.
Major centers of the paper industry in India
Kagaznagar, Rajmuhandri in Andhra Pradesh, Dalmiyanagar in Bihar, Yamunanagar in Haryana, Dandeli in Karnataka, Amlai in Madhya Pradesh, Ballarpur in Maharashtra, Brijrajnagar in Odisha, Palipalayam in Tamil Nadu, Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh and Raniganj and Titagarh in West Bengal.
The chemical industry is the fourth largest industry in India after the cotton textile industry, iron-steel industry, and engineering industry. India ranks 12th in the world in terms of quantity in the production of chemicals.
The chemical industry accounts for about 15 percent of the manufacturing sector, while it contributes 14 percent to the country’s total export value. The industry contributes about 20 percent to the national revenue in the form of customs duties and excise duties.
Basic Chemical Industries
Those chemicals which are produced on a large scale and which are used as raw materials or processing chemicals for other industries are called basic chemicals. The major chemicals of this category are sulfuric acid, nitric acid, soda ash, caustic soda, liquid chlorine, calcium, hayride, benzene, acetic acid, acetone, butanol, and PVC, etc.
At present, only nitrogen-rich and phosphate-rich fertilizers are produced in India. In 1951, the first state-owned fertilizer plant was established in Sindri, Bihar.
Two major organizations in the production of drugs in the public sector are as follows, Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (IDPL), which has five plants in the world’s largest antibiotic plant in Rishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, and Muzaffarpur. Second Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd. (HAL), which is at Pimpri near Poona.
Insecticide India’s Major Industries
Hindustan Insecticide Ltd. It is India’s largest anticonvulsant drug manufacturer with 3 plants in Bhatinda, Kerala established in 1960 in Rasayani (Maharashtra). Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd. was established in 1960 in Rasayani (Maharashtra). It has two units at Rasayani (Maharashtra) and Kochi (Kerala).
Oil refining industry
Localization of refining industry in India in oil fields and establishment of refineries based on imported oil at coastal ports. At present, 17 refinery factories are operating in India…
Bo PCL Mumbai
I O C Barauni
K R L Kochi
CPCL Manali, Chennai
BRPL Bongaigaon, Assam
N R. Ale. Numaligarh
N. GC Tatipaka
3/4 of India’s glass industry is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Maharashtra. Firozabad is famous for its bangle industry. Bahjoi, Sambalpur, Nano, and Ghaziabad are other centers of the glass industry.
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