Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
What do you understand by the industrial revolution?
The industrial revolution refers to those fundamental changes in the production system which campaigned from hand-operated tools to power-operated plants. The term industrial revolution was first used as a capsule phrase by French socialist leader Louis Blankey in 1833. That was the Industrial Revolution and Imperialism.
Name and function of the machine invented by Richard Arkwright
In 1769, Richard Arkwright improved the spinning jenny and made a yarn cutting machine called a water frame powered by power. It was the first machine in the world that used to run on water power instead of by hand. Most scholars consider the beginning of the Industrial Revolution from here.
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Explain the sphere of influence Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
Where the political hegemony has not been established but the imperialist countries established their political influence by investing capital in those areas, those areas are called spheres of influence.
What was the Fashoda case in Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
France was very sorry for the British influence in Egypt. For this reason, in 1908, the French army raised the flag of France on the Fashoda on the White Nile. General Kutner of England asked the French general Marchand to withdraw from Fashoda. Seeing the possibility of war and its weakness, France withdrew.
What was the culture system in Indonesia during Industrial Revolution and Imperialism?
After the Dutch government re-occupied Indonesia, a new economic policy was implemented to increase the source of income, it was called the culture system.
What was the Moroccan crisis and how was it resolved?
It was decided in the Madrid Conference of 1880 that all countries in Morocco have the freedom to trade. Due to the extravagance of the Moroccan ruler Abdul Aziz, the economic system started to deteriorate, due to which public discontent arose. France controlled Tunis to the east of Morocco and the Gambia to the south. Initially, all European countries agreed to this right.
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In 1904, France sent a party to Morocco with a reform proposal, which Germany strongly opposed. In 1905 the German Emperor visited Tangier and said that Germany and Japan had interests in Morocco. So Germany convened an international conference in 1906 in Egelsiras in which 12 countries participated. It confirmed the independence of Morocco.
Why did the Industrial Revolution start in England?
The Industrial Revolution started in England around 1760. The reasons for which were-
- The standard of living of the people of England is higher than the people of other countries.
- Passing of iron and coal mines.
- Huge colonial empire.
- Monopoly on maritime trade.
- Adaptation to the geographical location of England.
- Strengthening of the commercial and political position of England.
- Beginning of agricultural revolution from England.
- England has huge capital.
- Plunder of Bengal- Rajni Palmdutt has exposed this fact in ‘Aaj Ka Bharat’.
What was the policy of open doors in Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
North- America opened the gates of Japan to the west and it opened the gates of China to the west. After 1898 AD, America followed the open-door policy in China. The United States Secretary of State named John Hay introduced a new policy to protect America’s interests, which is known as the Open Door Policy.
Open Door Policy to protect America’s interests
All countries should be given facilities to trade with China, no country should be given special rights in comparison to other countries, tax rates should be respected for all countries and only China should be given the right to collect them.
Open Door Policy was based on commercial selfishness
In fact, America’s policy of open doors in China was based on a sense of commercial selfishness. He wanted to maintain the facilities and privileges without being interested in China’s territorial integrity and sovereignty. All western countries approved the American policy except Russia.
Africa was divided into small artificially created states by accidents of European competition.
In the post-modern era, the world faced two phases of imperialism. The first phase began with the discovery of trade routes at the end of the 15th century, which culminated in the year 1815. For some time there was rest in this expansionist process. Its second round started after the year 1870.
This period was designated by the new imperialist era
The countries of Africa, Asia, and South America became their victims. This period has been designated by the new imperialist era. This was the period after the Industrial Revolution in Europe. After this, the Europeans began to establish colonies for raw materials, human labor, and increase their political power. This culminated in the partition of Africa.
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In the context of Africa, the accidents of colonial competition occurred among European countries who began to divide Africa for their own benefit. In this sequence, the Belgian ruler Leopold organized a conference in Brussels in the year 1876 to exploit the resources of Africa and establish colonies there.
In this meeting, an international assembly was formed for African visitation. After this, his emissaries established his dominance by making treaties in the interior parts of Africa.
Britain and Portugal established a joint commission to control the Congo River
This activity led to other European nations such as Britain and Portugal and they established a joint commission for the control of the Congo River. During this time England accepted Portuguese suzerainty over the Congo. This protest culminated in another accident.
The 1884 Congress laid down the framework for the Treaty of Berlin. Under which Belgian rights over the lower territories of the Congo were approved. This Congress also decided that after annexation by European countries, its hegemony would be recognized when that country gave its information to other countries.
European countries established charter companies for the hegemony of Africa
After this, many European countries established charter companies for the hegemony of Africa. They occupied the land parts of Africa and divided the land according to their convenience. When European countries began to liberate these colonies in the twentieth century, those territories came into existence as small states based on artificial boundaries. Therefore, it can be clearly said that the Europeans divided Africa into small artificially created small states by accidents of competition.