Layer Poultry Farming
The poultry farm does not get any finance from the industry department. For this, the Animal Husbandry Department is giving subsidy and the loan is also provided by the bank. The cost of layer poultry will be up to 40 lakhs, which will have a capacity of 10,000 birds. It will also have a low capacity such as the cost of 5000 birds capacity will come from about 20 to 25 lakhs. According to me, you should start with a small capacity. Layer farms of 1000 birds capacity can also be started. It is a very profitable business for today. You will get a profit of about 2 to 2.50 lakh per year. For this, a training program is run by Animal Husbandry for promotion, you will have to participate in it and then you should enter this business. Read this post for more information.
Introduction on layer poultry farming
The project is related to setting up a layer of poultry farming that is a poultry egg farm. Poultry farming provides supplementary income to farmers and agricultural laborers. Poultry is today one of the fastest-growing sectors of the agricultural sector in India. In the comparison of agriculture, the production of eggs and broiler is growing at a rate of 8 to 10 percent, while agriculture is growing only 1.5 to 2 percent. this is the cause India has become the 5th largest producer of eggs and the 8th position in the broiler. The driving force in this expansion is a combination of factors – an increase in per capita income, a growing urban population, and falling real hen prices.
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India’s poultry industry represents a major success story. While agricultural production has been growing at a rate of 2 percent per year over the last two to three decades, poultry production has been growing at a rate of about 8 percent per year, with an annual turnover of $ 7500 million.
Increasing in size of Indian poultry farms is marked as the growth of the poultry sector. In early-stage poultry farms keep only 200 to 500 chickens but now poultry farm is called small that have about 5000 chickens. At the present time, these farms have chicken from 10,000 to 50,000 and it has become a common trend. Small units are likely to find themselves at a disadvantage due to high feed and transportation costs, expensive vaccines, and the unavailability of veterinary care services and loans. These days smaller units are moving toward the broiler farm due to the broiler units’ stated income from six weeks.
India’s poultry industries have different structure and it varies from one region to another. While independent and relatively small-scale producers account for the bulk of production, integrated large-scale producers make up for the increasing share of production in some regions. Integrators include large regional firms that cover all aspects of production, including raising herds of grandparents and parents, following the DOC, contracting production, compounding feed, providing veterinary services, And wholesale.
PROCUREMENT OF BIRDS FOR LAYER POULTRY FARMING
For the purpose of egg production, the white leghorn is Austerepalp and Rhode Island Red in addition to the popular egg types. For the uplift of the broiler, White-Plymouth-Rock, White-Cornish, and New Hampshire breeds are recommended. Commercial day-to-day chicks of these breeds are available under different trade names, which must be purchased from a sales hatchery after consultation and after-sale.
Purchase of chickens: –
In the months of February, March, and April, one-day sex chicks are usually procured for the proper development of sparrows and a good market in winter for keeping birds in the winter. However, chickens can be purchased at any time during the year for the purpose of regular egg production.
The housing of Poultry Farm:-
Poultry sheds may be constructed either with kachha, semi pucca, or pucca houses. It may, however, be ensured that the sheds are damp/rodent-proof and are not susceptible to the risks of fire and stormy winds. The spaces required for chicks are as hereunder:-
Age of chicks Floor area per chicks
0.4 weeks 1/2 sq. ft.
4-8 weeks 1 sq. ft.
8-12 weeks 1.5 to 2 sq. ft.
Above 12weeks 2 to 2.5 sq. ft.
FEEDING SYSTEM OF LAYER POULTRY FARMING
The cost of feed generally constitutes 50 to 70% of the total expenditure involved in running a poultry farm. The birds are feed a readymade mash in the feeders which are generally made of galvanized iron sheets. The mash is of three grades for different age groups of birds. Fed consumption is as below:-
Age Feed consumption for 100 birds per month
Up to 4 weeks 100 kg.
4-8 weeks 150 kg.
8-12 weeks 250 kg.
LOCATION OF THE LAYER POULTRY FARMING
The proposed poultry farm will be set up at a place that the site must justify to be suitable in view of the following basic considerations:-
- Availability of raw materials & consumables.
- Availability of veterinary doctors.
- Availability of Power, Fuel, Water.
- Banking facility.
- Marketing prospectus.
- Good communications.
- Labor facility.
The capacity of this farm will be 10,000 birds at a time per batch.
PERIOD OF EGGS PRODUCTION
36 weeks per batch.
CAPACITY OF EGGS PER BIRD
320 eggs per bird.
TOTAL TIME PERIOD
- 18 weeks to become matured.
- 54 weeks of egg production.
- After 72 weeks of supply for meat.
PRODUCTION PROCESS OF LAYER POULTRY FARMING
Light and temperature:
The light and temperature conditions for a specific layer production period are shown in Tables 2, and 3, respectively. For those chickens reared in layer cages, a biodegradable mat is usually placed in a pen. The chute allows the chicks to be discovered better, providing time for the chicks to slowly adjust to the wire mesh floor. Within a week, biodegradable mats are removed or dropped into the litter pit. A single layer cage may contain more than fifty chicks, but as they mature, the density of the cage decreases. Chickens kept in parchment homes are absorbed on the floor, covered with absorbent materials, such as pine shavings. During the first week, pullets are usually trimmed with beaks. Pulses initiated on the floor last for about 10 to 15 weeks and then move to a layer facility. The process is applied to transfer the chicks to another housing after 16 weeks of life. In transferring it should be checked the pulse and body weight to feed accordingly. The main objective is that the bird becomes strong and healthy to produce eggs. The daily exposure of light or photoperiod started increasing at 16 weeks of age as mention in table two. This increase in light exposure makes hens start laying eggs. If the laying hen has not reached the proper body weight (usually 3 pounds), by week 18, egg production will cease very quickly, after the start of the laying period. Therefore, it is important for young laying hens (pallets) to achieve a proper bodyweight that will support egg production. In tandem with mild manipulation, the diet is also altered to support egg production.
It is believed to regulate their feed intake, unlike birds raised specifically for meat. The layers chick usually fed fully. Birds are fed through the chain system. The chain system delivers feed to the metal feeder at precise times during the day. Table 4 shows the dietary protein and energy recommendations based on age in the type layer. The young birds are fed high protein the first few weeks. This level steadily decreases until egg production reaches approximately 12 to 15 percent protein. Monitoring of dietary proteins should be examined with other ingredients During the laying phase, lysine, methionine, calcium, and phosphorus are monitored accurately to support maximum egg production.
As shown in Table 2 and Table 4, manufacturers start stimulating and manipulating the diet around the age of 18 weeks to support egg production. Minor nutrients have also been manipulated so that calcium levels in the diet are about five to seven times higher than phosphorus levels. When a herd (a group of chickens) enters egg production for the first time, the egg-laying rate will be around 10 to 20 percent. This means that 10 to 20 percent of chickens are laying eggs at the age of 18 to 22 weeks. The herd quickly reaches egg production (90 plus percent) at 30 to 32 weeks of age. Post-peak egg production (after 30 to 32 weeks of age) is consistently reduced by about fifty percent at 60 to 70 weeks of age. At this point an economic decision must be made by the manufacturer; Fifty percent of production is near the “break-even” point for egg producers (eg, egg feed cost = market price). When the herd reaches 50 percent production, producers usually decide to thaw the herd to achieve higher levels of egg production. As a rule of thumb, the molting program takes about 10 weeks from the start and should be back to 50 percent production after the molt.
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Post-malt egg production will increase in such a way that peak egg production will reach about 80 percent. Peak production after molt is short-lived and the herd typically returns to 50 percent production by 100 to 110 weeks of age. Many manufacturers (one-third to one-half) will induce a second mole, the same process that took place at 60 to 70 weeks of age. The second mole is usually determined by the prevailing egg prices and availability of replacement pullets. As previously stated, once herd egg production is reduced by fifty percent, an economic decision is made to prepare the birds for the hen or hen processing facility that consumes the chicken. When they reach the end of their egg production cycle, most are aged between 100 and 130 weeks. The time between 100 and 130 weeks of age can be based on management decisions. Thus the chickens can be molten a second time and then sent to a spent hen facility (120 to 130 weeks of age) or the spent hen facility directly. After transferring the birds on 100 to 110 weeks the house is cleaned to enter the second lot. In cleaning it is kept in mind there should be no insects.
Inline method and offline method, there are two types of facilities in the layer farm. In either case, the hens lay on an angled wire floor facing the front of the cage on a nylon belt (the floor angle is typically eight to ten degrees). The belt carries eggs out of the house to either an egg processing facility or a storage cooler. Since the processing facility and coolers extract eggs from the home, eggs can reside on the belt for 12 to 14 hours, depending on the demand per hour, but most are collected after a few hours. The in-line layer facility is called the first type of facility. In this facility, the egg layer moves directly from home to the egg processing facility. When eggs carried to the eggs processing chamber, the eggs are cleaned to 12 to 14 hours to complete the removal of foreign materials, visual inspection (eggs Were checked for problems, cracks and blood spots)), and then classified for packaging. When the eggs are packed, transfer to a cooler room at 40–45o F, and from here eggs are shipped to retail outlets. Egg producers usually deliver the eggs to retail outlets within a week. The offline layer facility is called the second type of facility. The eggs are transported directly from the cooling chamber, this facility is the almost inline facility.. In this method, the eggs lay in a cold room for about two to three days, and are then transported to the egg processing facility via a refrigerated truck. These eggs are identified as in-line operations.
Table 1. A typical vaccination schedule for leghorns.
|Week of Vaccination|
|Type of Vaccination|
|15 days (1/2 dose)||Infectious Bursal|
|20 days (1/2 dose)||Infectious Bursal|
|25 days||Bronchitis, New Castle, Infectious Bursal (Typical Brand name Combo Vec. 30)|
|30 days||Bronchitis, New Castle, Infectious Bursal (Typical Brand name Combo Vec. 30)|
|49 days||Bronchitis, New Castle, Infectious Bursal (Typical Brand name Combo Vec. 30)|
|10 Weeks||Fowl Pox and Laryngotracheitis (commonly referred to as LT)|
|12 Week||Combo Vac 30|
|13 Week||Avian Encephalomyelitis (commonly referred to as AE)|
|16 Week||New Castle|
Table 2. Lighting program for the leghorn.
|Age||Amount of Light (L) and Dark (D)|
|0 to 3 Days||22(L):2(D)|
|3 days to 1 Week||20(L):4(D)|
|1 to 2 Week||18(L):6(D)|
|2 to 3 Week||16(L):8(D)|
|3 to 8 Week||14.5(L):9.5(D)|
|15 – 17 Week||12.5(L):11.50(D)|
|25 Week throughout the production cycle||16.5(L):7.5(D)|
Table 3. Temperature control during a layer cycle.
|6 throughout layer cycle||70|
Table 4. General Feeding Guidelines for Layers.
|Met. Energy, Kcal./lb.||1325-1375||1350-1400||1375-1425||1350-1400||1300-1450|
MARKET PROSPECTS OF LAYER POULTRY FARMING
Per capita consumption of eggs in India is very poor than in another country whereas India holds the 5th largest position in the world. Poultry meat per person per year is only one kg. Here, again, there is considerable variation in per capita consumption between rural and urban areas and the entire region. The consumption of eggs in rural areas is 7.7 per annum whereas in urban areas is 17.8 eggs per capita. In seven states, per capita consumption is less than 3.5 per year. Similarly, the per capita consumption of poultry meat is 0.24 kg. in rural areas and 1.08 kg. in urban areas.
Slow Changes in Consumption Habits
The National Sample Survey rounds reveal many facts on consumption data. First, 42 percent of the families are vegetarian in that they do not eat fish, meat, or eggs. The remaining 68 percent of the families are non-vegetarian. On-time going the people have shifted gradually from vegetarian to non-vegetarian. For example, between 1987–88 and 1999–2000, the proportion of households consuming only one of three commodities – fish, meat, or eggs – increased by only one percent in urban areas, while in rural areas the proportion increased by four percent. Second, the calculation of income elasticity of demand for individual commodity groups shows that the commodity group, which includes meat, fish or eggs, ranks second in the amount of milk and milk products are on the first rank in rural areas, while the meat, fish or egg item group consumed in urban areas ranked third. It has been estimated that income elastic varies from 1.01 rural areas to 0.66 in urban areas. Third, price elasticity also follows the same sequence. There is a high price elasticity of 0.75 in rural areas with a comparison of 0.68 in urban areas. This price elasticity is on meat, fish, or eggs Fourth, the estimates of income and price elasticity calculated for each of the four spending groups show that the elasticity runs from the poor to the non-poor and the rich. Income elasticity is lower for the rich – 0.5 in rural areas and 0.6 in urban areas. The other two income groups in rural areas have higher income elasticities – more than unity. Price elasticity is more than unity for the very poor and poor in rural areas and for the very poor in urban areas. An important policy implication of these consumption habits is that there is great scope to increase the demand for poultry products in rural areas.