VERMICOMPOST MANUFACTURING – AN INTRODUCTION
Vermicompost manufacturing has become necessary because the Indian economy is based on agriculture. Our country is essentially an agroforestry-based country. Indians have always considered an abundance of food as the primary condition of their civilization and the sharing of food was the primary discipline of civilized living. But in the present scenario, India is hungry. India produces around 200 million tons of food grains for the population of 1000 million people implying an average of 200 kg per capita per year. Of the gross production if the amount used for seeds for cattle feed and to some extent waste is reduced then it comes to less than 180 kg per capita per year.
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It is less than the estimated minimum amount to avoid starvation. Whatever is there in our food stocks it is because people don’t have the purchasing power and the managerial non-sense by the states? Therefore to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population, the Green Revolution was brought in. it was based on a monoculture of high-yielding varieties of seeds supported by chemical fertilizers pesticides, and irrigation facilities focused on maximum production.
VERMICOMPOST AND ITS ANALYSIS
To overcome all these problems, Vermicompost is the only remedy. It is only compost without chemicals. The addition of such organic manures helps in improving soil fertility and provides all 16 nutrients required by the plants in a balanced proportion. The application of bio-manures increases aeration and soil porosity facilitates the growth of soil microbes like Azotobactors, Rhizobium, and PSMs naturally (Known as bio-fertilizers recently) which helps in nitrogen fixation and mineralizing nutrients in soils. Besides some of these manures like biogas digested slurry and Vermicompost contain a sufficient count of these useful micro-organisms which helps in increasing the fertility of soil leading to sustainable crop production.
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Vermicompost is made from Agricultural waste, Animal waste, Industrial waste, Garden waste, and town waste. Production of Vermicompost is very simple not technological and highly profitable in all respects. These days it is a matter of great problem to dispose of these wastes which will be converted into fertilizer easily by the Vermicomposting process to use in farming sectors. In this era of green revolution and biotechnology, the significant use of our natural resources and traditional practices of preparing organic manures and applying them to the soil is neglected. Bio-manures can be produced through the country in a big way as well as a small scale rural industry as the production of Vermicompost is an easy process and easily manageable in rural areas.
WHY BIO-MANURES AS VERMICOMPOST
India is primarily a country of agriculture. In this field, the future of our country rests on achievements from time to time. With this view, agricultural practice shifted towards mechanized agriculture. Attainment of self-sufficient technologies relating to the breeding of high yield varieties of crops, improved management of agricultural inputs like water, plant nutrient, plant production measures, and improvement in crop management practices followed by credit support to the farmers.
The efforts have resulted in the doubling of food grain production twice since the beginning of the planning era in the year 1950-51 when the food grains production was 50.80 million tonnes in the country, which had reached a level of about 200 million tonnes in the year 1996-97. Foodgrain production is required to be further doubled by the next decade, keeping in view the growth in population. Notwithstanding the attainment of self-sufficient in food production the quality of nutrition and the availability of food to every Indian yet remain to be improved.
VERMICOMPOST IN TREND
An analysis of plant nutrient use in the country shows that chemical nutrients are a major source. A consumption level of about 18 million tonnes of nutrients in the country represents an average of about 90 kg. of nutrients per hectare during 1999-2000. The organic manures and bio-fertilizers have great potential but their actual consumption is not significant. However, this situation has to be improved.
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Sustainable agriculture is the form of agriculture that aims to meet the needs of the current generation without endangering the resource base for future generations. More food has to be produced to feed the buried population and do so without erosion of the resource base. Extending agriculture to ecologically fragile areas means a greater threat to the environment. It will be minimal dependence on synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and antibiotics in sustainable agriculture. It is also considered a farming system with the use of manure, crop rotation, and minimum tillage.
Sustainable agriculture is a balanced management system of renewable resources without deterioration of soils, wildlife, forests, crops, fish livestock, plant genetic resources, and ecosystems, and to sustain or improve the productivity and ecosystem services of these resources to present and future generations. Food livestock is to be provided for. Natural resources not only provide food, fiber, fuel, and fodder but also serve ecosystem services such as detoxification of toxic chemicals within soils, purification of water, favorable weather, and regulation of hydrological processes within watersheds. Sustainable agriculture is to replenish nutrients and control weeds, pests, and diseases through biological and cultural methods.
vermiculture is the process of production of earthworm species by the scientific process under a controlled process. vermicompost is the biological degradation of organic waste by feeding the waste to agricultural waste, municipal waste, animal waste, industrial waste, and garden waste.
PROPERTIES OF VERMICOMPOST
Vermicompost will be an economical venture when it is taken up at the vacantly of the waste generating places. The farmer himself should practice this product, rather than buying the compost produced by others. With the available resources in the field. In the integrated farming system Vermicompost is the most common fertilizer to produce. Vermicompost, just as it forms the nutrient resource to the field. it is well-developed worms from a rich protein source in aquaculture and poultry farm.
- A loosely compact granule that is rich in Vermi mucus and energy.
- Helps the land to properly circulate the air, increase water holding capacity, and increase roots strength.
- A very familiar to the soil.
- Odorless and similar to the soil odor.
- Rich in Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria, Phosphate soluble bacteria, Fanzine, Anti neomycin properties, plant development promoting bacteria, and many polymers.
- Also rich in many bioactive compounds which help to improve the capacity of the plant in all respects.
- It contains humic acids that increase and helps the plants in the production of roots, stems, and develops the pregnancy culture of the plant.
- Easily manageable and handling.
- Having very low harmful properties.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF VERMICOMPOST
Vermicompost has the following chemical composition:-
On the basis of Agriculture university Bangalore:-
- Organic Carbon 9.15% to 17.98%
- Total Nitrogen 0.50% to 1.50%
- Available Phosphorus 0.10% to 0.30%
- Potassium Availability 0.15% to 0.56%
- Sodium Available 0.06% to 0.30%
- Calcium & Magnesium 22.67 to 70.00MEq per 100 gm.
- Copper 2.00 to 9.50ppm
- Iron 2.00 to 9.30ppm
- Zink 5.70 to 11.50ppm
- Available Sulfur 128.00 to 548ppm
LIST OF WASTE MATERIALS FOR VERMICOMPOST MANUFACTURING:-
- Agricultural waste.
- Animal waste.
- Garden waste.
- Town waste.
- Agro-Industrial waste:-
- waste of food processing units.
- From vegetable oil refinery.
- The wastage from the sugar factory.
- Braveries & distilleries waste.
- Seed processing units waste.
- From aromatic oil extraction units.
- Coyer industries wastage.
TYPES OF EARTHWORMS FOR VERMICOMPOST MANUFACTURING
There are four domestic species of earthworm to use in the production of Vermicompost:-
- Eisenia foetida:- It is most European compost verm, brandling verm, and Tiger verm.
- Eudrilus eugeniae:- it is the African nightcrawler.
- Perionyx – excavatus:- it is also the oriental compost verm.
4. Lumbricus rubilus :- It is a type of red verm.